Probably you know that India’s full name is “Republic of India” or “Bharathiya Ganrajya”. But why is India called as Republic of India? Why not as Democracy of India when it is the largest democratic nation? Why do we have only Republic and Independence days but no Democracy, secular or socialist days etc. when all of these words appear in our preamble? To find these answers let me introduce to you what is known as “Political Spectrum” which is way more complicated than light spectrum (I sometime find electromagnetic spectrum confusing. X-rays are on right or left?).
If you rearrange EM spectrum from increasing order of frequency to wavelength then left goes to right and vice versa. Similarly in case of political spectrum it is important to define what is left and what is right. Simply calling communists as left is like saying red (I mean color red) is on left side of spectrum. So here is one sensible way of looking at political spectra:
As you can see if 100% power goes to government then people get 0% power. But probably equality needs little explanation. It is a left ideology that the government with 100% power can abolish the differences in the people. It can control people to create a society where everyone is equal by taking away the excess from wealthy and giving to the poor. Whereas on far right, the people are on their own with no government so according to Darwin it’s all about survival of fittest with obvious result of inequality.
Now where does dictatorship, democracy, republic etc. come in? Well if people were to have 0% power that means they can’t even decide who should have that 100% power so naturally dictatorship is established. On the contrary, if there has to be no government then it is obvious to have anarchy.
All the subtleties are involved with the distinction of democracy and republic. Democracy on the relative left says “majority will rule” but the republic on relative right says “law will rule”. Idea of republic is to make laws and let people be free as long as laws aren’t violated but democracy is simply to go with the majority to govern people and the people has to accept the majority decision on every issue. When the drafting board decided to call India as a republic they were clear that India ought to be a center right nation. Democracy is required to elect the people who would make laws thus making democracy a necessary evil (also laws need to change with time) but it’s not the idea on which India needs to run.